Debugging Facts|Are Mushroom…Murderous, Hallucinogenic Or Delicious?
Mushrooms are greatly in color like other poisonous plants and animals for example blue poison dart frog, castor oil plant and carol snake. So it’s difficult to find out which mushroom is edible and which is poisonous, serious skills are required to determine difference between different species of mushrooms.
Do not eat random mushrooms, they are quite similar. So we don’t know which one is safe to eat and which one is perilous poisonous. As shown in below picture, we don’t know either specie A or specie B is edible, both look similar so we should be careful
Matsutake (Tricholoma Matsutake) is safe to eat, so it is considered as an edible mushroom
Death Cap (AmanitaPhalloides) as its name suggests, it is considered as one of perilous poisonous mushrooms.
This one mushroom is enough to kill you. It contain two molecules named α-amantin and β-amanitin. These molecules bind to the enzyme RNA polymerase II which normally transcribed DNA into RNA. This is the first step in making protein.
When enzyme RNA polymerase II blocked, it stop making protein and start to die. Vomiting, cramps and diarrhea usually begin about after 6 hours of eating the mushroom. It depends upon the dose. After getting through these symptoms u might start to feel better, but your liver and other organs can start to shut down and might be you can die.
Now these three in the below picture are also similar, so its also quite difficult to select that which one is edible and which one is poisonous, but lets learn about this
Morel (Morchella Esculenta), is considered as edible as long as it is cooked.
Gyromitra (Gyromitra Esculenta) it is considered as toxic
This mushroom is widely distributed and is known as spring mushroom. They grow in sandy soil under coniferous trees. In mostly countries they are known as edible mushrooms, but they cannot be eaten as raw or incompletely processed as they have cause many fatal causes of food poisoning. We should boiled or cooked them properly before having them in our deserts.
It contain molecule Gyromitrin which is considered as responsible for causing toxicity as in our body this molecule Gyromitrin can be converted into N-Monomethyl-Hydrazine (MMH). MMH prevents the formation of GABA (Gamma-amino butyric acid) in our central nervous system
Normally the function of GABA in our body is, it helps to regulate our muscle movement by decreasing signaling between our neurons. If we have less GABA in our system, our neuron will start signaling more which can cause deadly ——luckily death. They are some extremely rare cases also exist that some people eat them as raw and cannot get sick, scientists are still figuring this out.
Verpa (Verpa Bohemica), this specie of mushroom is probably fine, it’s considered in edible mushrooms.
It is originally found in Asia (specifically India), Northern part of North America and in some parts of Europe. It grows in early spring, following the snowfall on the ground of woods.
In some part of the world it is sold in stores as generally it is considered like any other edible mushroom. But in susceptible individuals it is found that they suffer from gastrointestinal upset and lack of muscular coordination. Why? We don’t know why it happens. Chemistry of this is yet not so clear. So we can considered this mushroom as wildcard.
Now lets learn about these two given below in picture. Are they toxic, edible or hallucinogenic?
Shaggy Ink Cap (Coprinus Comatus) is totally considered as edible mushroom.
It grows in mostly part of the world. It is mostly found in unexpected areas such as green areas, in grounds, along gravel road and even we can find them around waste areas.
Widely occur in grasslands and meadows of North America. Usually there growing period is from June to November. Mushroom soup of shaggy ink cap is very common. Shaggy ink cap is also known as medicinal mushroom. Recently it’s been used to do apoptosis of ovarian cancer cell via extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways.
Ink Cap (Coprinopsis Atramentaria) is potentially dangerous when its washed with alcohol.
It usually occurs across the Northern Hemisphere. Its other main feature is this that it grows in tufts. They can also be found on buried dead woods. Usually it grows after rain in autumn and spring. It is mild in taste and it is poisonous when it is consumed with alcohol.
Normally when we consume alcohol, our body breakdown ethanol into acetaldehyde, which is then converted into non-toxic acetate by the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase. Acetate is then finally converted into carbon dioxide and water. Our body exhale and pee out this later on.
Ink Cap contain the molecule Coprine. This molecule blocks the activity of enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase. So acetaldehyde start to accumulate in our liver and that can poisonate liver, within 15 minutes of drinking alcohol. Our heart will quickly start to raise and will beat more then it regularly use to beat.
We will feel warm and began to flush. Our arms and legs will feel heavy and might be get inclined. And crazy thing is this if we will drink alcohol even after few days of eating this mushroom we will still get effect.
Fly Agaric (Amanita Muscaria)
This mushroom is toxic and hallucinogenic. It is found in temperate and boreal regions of northern hemisphere.
This mushroom is considered as recognizable mushroom. Within a couple of hours of eating this mushroom you will start to feel dizzy, tired and begin to lose your sense of time.as u start getting feeling of euphoria , see brighter color and listen distorted sounds.
This is caused by mostly two molecules named as Ibotenic and Muscimol acid. Muscimol is better understood as it is principally responsible for hallucinogen. Ibotonic acid is also considered as hallucinogen but it is also toxic. It has shown effects in monkey, mice and rats. Structure and activity of Ibotenic and Muscimol acid is similar to couple of neurotransmitters which is circulating in our system. They work as excitatory and inhibitory neurons.